Visa is obligatory for all foreign nationals who plan to travel to Portugal. The criteria for visa regulations and requirements depend upon the country to which the applicant belongs.
US citizens, who visit Portugal for travel and tourism, do not require a visa. But American citizens who are applying for a job, higher studies have to abide by the visa rules.
Citizens of following countries don't require a visa for a short stay: Andorra, Antigua E Barbuda, Liechtenstein, Argentina, Malaysia, Australia, Mauritius, Bahamas, Mexico, Barbados, Monaco, Brazil, Nicaragua, Brunei, New Zealand; Bulgaria (Eur. Union), Canada, Panama, Chile, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Romania (Eur. Union), Croatia, San Marino, Cyprus (Eur. Union), St Kitts and Nevis, El Salvador, Seychelles, Singapore, Estonia, Guatemala, South Korea, Holy See, Honduras, United States of America, Ireland (Eur. Union), United Kingdom (Eur. Union), Israel, Uruguay, Venezuela and Japan.
Submit an application for a student visa to the nearest Portuguese Consulate (Or Embassy). After processing, the request is passed over to the immigration authorities for consideration. Finally, a student visa is issued once the authorities give approval. Depending upon the conditions, the processing may take 2-4 weeks.
In Portugal, a residency visa is issued to those who want to resettle permanently for retirement, independent living, to establish independent business, and to set up investments, etc. A resettlement visa is issued to foreign members of a Portuguese citizen's family interested in transferring their permanent residence to Portugal. Family members of a non-Portuguese citizen who want to establish as a permanent resident in Portugal can also apply for a resettlement visa. All residential visas are valid for 120-days, and visa holders have to apply for a Permanent Residency Card (PR Card) at the nearest "Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras" office in Portugal.
Visa to Perform Sports Activities in Portugal
Temporary visas vary for those engaged in sports activities from 3 months to up to 3 years, but under a contract to a Club or Sports Facility. For a temporary visa, an aspirant needs to submit an application to the nearest Portuguese Embassy (or Consulate) for processing. The request is further forwarded to the consideration of Portuguese immigration authorities in Lisbon. It may take 1 to 2 months to reach the Embassy (or Consulate). After that, the applicant is issued with a 120-day visa and a residency card within 3 months of applicant's arrival in Portugal.
Visa Information for Schengen States for Transit and Short Stay Visas (1 to 90 days)
Here are countries of the Schengen Agreement:
Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, France, Greece, Iceland, Hungary, Latvia, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Norway, The Netherlands, Lithuania, Malta, Portugal, Slovak, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
The Embassy (or Consulate) of these countries issues a Schengen visa (or uniform visa), which allows the holder to travel in all above countries. However, the processing may take up to 1 month, so apply in advance.
For more details visit : Portugal Visa Info